Publications

Click on the following links for publications relating to the Sea Surface Temperature project.

Merchant, Christopher J., Block, Thomas, Corlett, Gary K., Embury, Owen, Mittaz, Jonathan P. D. and Mollard, James D. P. (2020) Harmonization of space-borne infra-red sensors measuring sea surface temperature. Remote Sensing, 12 (6). 1048. ISSN 2072-4292 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12061048

Merchant, Christopher, Saux-Picart, Stéphane and Waller, Joanne (2020) Bias correction and covariance parameters for optimal estimation by exploiting matched in-situ references. Remote Sensing of Environment, 237. 111590. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2019.111590

Bulgin, Claire E., Merchant, Christopher J. and Ferreira, David (2020) Tendencies, variability and persistence of sea surface temperature anomalies. Scientific Reports, 10. 7986. ISSN 2045-2322 doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64785-9

Fiedler, Emma K., McLaren, Alison, Banzon, Viva, Brasnett, Bruce, Ishizaki, Shiro, Kennedy, John, Rayner, Nick, Roberts-Jones, Jonah, Corlett, Gary, Merchant, Christopher J. and Donlon, Craig (2019) Intercomparison of long-term sea surface temperature analyses using the GHRSST Multi-Product Ensemble (GMPE) system. Remote Sensing of Environment, 222. pp. 18-33. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.12.015

Merchant, Christopher J., Embury, Owen, Bulgin, Claire E., Block, Thomas, Corlett, Gary K., Fiedler, Emma, Good, Simon A., Mittaz, Jonathan, Rayner, Nick A., Berry, David, Eastwood, Steinar, Taylor, Michael, Tsushima, Yoko, Waterfall, Alison, Wilson, Ruth and Donlon, Craig (2019) Satellite-based time-series of sea-surface temperature since 1981 for climate applications. Scientific Data, 6. 223. ISSN 2052-4463 doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-019-0236-x

Pearson, Kevin, Good, Simon, Merchant, Christopher J., Prigent, Catherine, Embury, Owen and Donlon, Craig (2019) Sea surface temperature in global analyses: gains from the copernicus imaging microwave radiometer. Remote Sensing, 11 (20). 2362. ISSN 2072-4292 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11202362

Robson, Jon, Sutton, Rowan T., Archibald, Alex, Cooper, Fenwick, Christensen, Matthew, Gray, Lesley J., Holliday, N. Penny, Macintosh, Claire, McMillan, Malcolm, Moat, Ben, Russo, Maria, Tilling, Rachel, Carslaw, Ken, Desbruyères, Damien, Embury, Owen, Feltham, Daniel L., Grosvenor, Daniel P., Josey, Simon, King, Brian, Lewis, Alastair, McCarthy, Gerard D., Merchant, Chris, New, Adrian L., O'Reilly, Christopher H., Osprey, Scott M., Read, Katie, Scaife, Adam, Shepherd, Andrew, Sinha, Bablu, Smeed, David, Smith, Doug, Ridout, Andrew, Woollings, Tim and Yang, Mingxi (2018) Recent multivariate changes in the North Atlantic climate system, with a focus on 2005-2016. International Journal of Climatology, 38 (12). pp. 5050-5076. ISSN 0899-8418 doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5815

Berry, David I., Corlett, Gary K., Embury, Owen and Merchant, Christopher J. (2018) Stability assessment of the (A)ATSR sea surface temperature climate dataset from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative. Remote Sensing, 10 (1). 126. ISSN 2072-4292 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010126

Bulgin, Claire E., Mittaz, Jonathan P.D., Embury, Owen, Eastwood, Steinar and Merchant, Christopher J. (2018) Bayesian cloud detection for 37 Years of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Area Coverage (GAC) data. Remote Sensing, 10 (1). 97. ISSN 2072-4292 doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10010097

Block, Thomas, Embacher, Sabine, Merchant, Christopher J. and Donlon, Craig (2018) High performance software framework for the calculation of satellite-to-satellite data matchups (MMS version 1.2). Geoscientific Model Development, 11 (6). pp. 2419-2427. ISSN 1991-9603 doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-2419-2018

Bentamy, A., Piollé, J. F., Grouazel, A., Danielson, R., Gulev, S., Paul, F., Azelmat, H., Mathieu, P. P., von Schuckmann, K., Sathyendranath, S., Evers-King, H., Esau, I., Johannessen, J. A., Clayson, C. A., Pinker, R. T., Grodsky, S. A., Bourassa, M., Smith, S. R., Haines, Keith, Valdivieso, M., Merchant, Christopher J., Chapron, B., Anderson, A., Hollmann, R. and Josey, S. A. (2017) Review and assessment of latent and sensible heat flux accuracy over the global oceans. Remote Sensing of Environment, 201. pp. 196-218. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.08.016

Kent, Elizabeth C., Kennedy, John J., Smith, Thomas M., Hirahara, Shoji, Huang, Boyin, Kaplan, Alexey, Parker, David E., Atkinson, Christopher P., Berry, David I., Carella, Giulia, Fukuda, Yoshikazu, Ishii, Masayoshi, Jones, Philip D., Lindgren, Finban, Merchant, Christopher J., Morak-Bozzo, Simone, Rayner, Nick A., Venema, Victor, Yasui, Souichiro and Zhang, Huai-Min (2017) A call for new approaches to quantifying biases in observations of sea-surface temperature. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98 (8). pp. 1601-1616. ISSN 0003-0007 doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00251.1

Merchant, Christopher J., Paul, Frank, Popp, Thomas, Ablain, Michael, Bontemps, Sophie, Defourny, Pierre, Hollmann, Rainer, Lavergne, Thomas, Laeng, Alexandra, de Leeuw, Gerrit, Mittaz, Jonathan, Poulsen, Caroline, Povey, Adam C., Reuter, Maximilian, Sathyendranath, Shubha, Sandven, Stein, Sofeiva, Viktoria F. and Wagner, Wolfgang (2017) Uncertainty information in climate data records from Earth observation. Earth System Science Data, 9 (2). pp. 511-527. ISSN 1866-3516 doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-9-511-2017

Meyssignac, B., Piecuch, C. G., Merchant, C. J., Racault, M.-F., Palanisamy, H., MacIntosh, C., Sathyendranath, S. and Brewin, R. (2017) Causes of the regional variability in observed sea level, sea surface temperature and ocean colour over the period 1993-2011. Surveys in Geophysics, 38 (1). pp. 187-215. ISSN 1573-0956 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-016-9383-1

MacIntosh, C. R., Merchant, C. J. and von Schuckmann, K. (2017) Uncertainties in steric sea level change estimation during the satellite altimeter era: concepts and practices. Surveys in Geophysics, 38 (1). ISSN 0169-3298 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-016-9387-x

Lauer, Axel, Eyring, Veronika, Righi, Mattia, Buchwitz, Michael, Defourny, Pierre, Evaldsson, Martin, Friedlingstein, Pierre, de Jeu, Richard, de Leeuw, Gerrit, Loew, Alexander, Merchant, Christopher J., Müller, Benjamin, Popp, Thomas, Reuter, Maximilian, Sandven, Stein, Senftleben, Daniel, Stengel, Martin, van Roozendael, Michel, Wenzel, Sabrina and Willen, Ulrika (2017) Benchmarking CMIP5 models with a subset of ESA CCI Phase 2 data using the ESMValTool. Remote Sensing of Environment, 203. pp. 9-39. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.01.007

Bulgin, Claire E., Embury, Owen, Corlett, Gary and Merchant, Christopher J. (2016) Independent uncertainty estimates for coefficient based sea surface temperature retrieval from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer instruments. Remote Sensing of Environment, 178. pp. 213-222. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.022

Bulgin, Claire E., Embury, Owen and Merchant, Christopher J. (2016) Sampling uncertainty in gridded sea surface temperature products and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Area Coverage (GAC) data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 117. pp. 287-294. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.02.021

Bulgin, Claire E., Eastwood, Steinar, Embury, Owen, Merchant, Christopher J. and Donlon, Craig (2015) Sea surface temperature climate change initiative: alternative image classification algorithms for sea-ice affected oceans. Remote Sensing of Environment, 162. pp. 396-407. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2013.11.022

Merchant, Christopher J., de Leeuw, Gerrit and Wagner, Wolfgang (2015) Selecting algorithms for Earth observation of climate within the European Space Agency Climate Change initiative: introduction to a special issue. Remote Sensing of Environment, 162. pp. 239-241. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2015.02.017

Merchant, Christopher J. and Embury, Owen (2014) Simulation and inversion of satellite thermal measurements. In: Zibordi, Giuseppe, Donlon, Craig J. and Parr, Albert C. (eds.) Optical radiometry for ocean climate measurements. Experimental methods in the physical sciences, 47 (47). Academic Press, pp. 489-526. ISBN 9780124170117 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417011-7.00015-5

Merchant, Christopher J., Embury, Owen, Roberts-Jones, Jonah, Fiedler, Emma, Bulgin, Claire E., Corlett, Gary K., Good, Simon, McLaren, Alison, Rayner, Nick, Morak-Bozzo, Simone and Donlon, Craig (2014) Sea surface temperature datasets for climate applications from Phase 1 of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (SST CCI). Geoscience Data Journal, 1 (2). pp. 179-191. ISSN 2049-6060 doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/gdj3.20

Merchant, C. J., Matthiesen, S., Rayner, N. A., Remedios, J. J., Jones, P. D., Olesen, F., Trewin, B., Thorne, P. W., Auchmann, R., Corlett, G. K., Guillevic, P. C. and Hulley, G. C. (2013) The surface temperatures of Earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change. Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, 2 (2). pp. 305-321. ISSN 2193-0864 doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-2-305-2013

Hollman, R., Merchant, C. J., Saunders, R., Downy, C., Buchwitz, M., Cazenave, A., Chuvieco, E., Defourny, P., de Leeuw, G., Forsberg, R., Holzer-Popp, T., Paul, F., Sandven, S., Sathyendranath, S., van Roozendael, M. and Wagner, W. (2013) The ESA climate change initiative: satellite data records for essential climate variables. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94 (10). ISSN 1520-0477 doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00254.1

Merchant, Christopher J. (2013) Thermal remote sensing of sea surface temperature. In: Kuenzer, Claudia and Dech, Stefan (eds.) Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing: Sensors, Methods, Applications. Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing, 17. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 287-313. ISBN 9789400766389 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6639-6

Good, E. J., Kong, X., Embury, O. and Merchant, C. J. (2012) An infrared desert dust index for the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers. Remote Sensing of Environment, 116. pp. 159-176. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2010.06.016

Embury, Owen and Merchant, Christopher J. (2012) A reprocessing for climate of sea surface temperature from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers: a new retrieval scheme. Remote Sensing of Environment, 116. pp. 47-61. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2010.11.020

Embury, O., Merchant, C.J. and Filipiak, M.J. (2012) A reprocessing for climate of sea surface temperature from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers: basis in radiative transfer. Remote Sensing of Environment, 116. pp. 32-46. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2010.10.016

Embury, O., Merchant, C.J. and Corlett, G.K. (2012) A reprocessing for climate of sea surface temperature from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometers: initial validation, accounting for skin and diurnal variability. Remote Sensing of Environment, 116. pp. 62-78. ISSN 0034-4257 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2011.02.028

Filipiak, M. J., Merchant, C. J., Kettle, H. and Le Borgne, P. (2012) A statistical model for sea surface diurnal warming driven by numercial weather predictions fluxes and winds. Ocean Science, 8 (2). pp. 197-209. ISSN 1812-0784 doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-197-2012

Merchant, C. J., Embury, Owen, Rayner, N. A., Berry, D. I., Corlett, G., Lean, K., Veal, K. L., Kent, E. C., Llewellyn-Jones, D., Remedios, J. J. and Saunders, R (2012) A twenty-year independent record of sea surface temperature for climate from Along-track Scanning Radiometers. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117. C12013. ISSN 0148-0227 doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JC008400

Good, S.; Fiedler, E.; Mao, C.; Martin, M.J.; Maycock, A.; Reid, R.; Roberts-Jones, J.; Searle, T.; Waters, J.; While, J.; Worsfold, M. The Current Configuration of the OSTIA System for Operational Production of Foundation Sea Surface Temperature and Ice Concentration Analyses. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 720.

Reid, R.; Good, S.; Martin, M.J. Use of Uncertainty Inflation in OSTIA to Account for Correlated Errors in Satellite-Retrieved Sea Surface Temperature Data. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1083.

Fiedler, EK, Mao, C, Good, SA, Waters, J, Martin, MJ. Improvements to feature resolution in the OSTIA sea surface temperature analysis using the NEMOVAR assimilation scheme. Q J R Meteorol Soc. 2019; 145: 3609- 3625. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.3644