This section provides access to various datasets published by the Greenland Ice Sheet ECV project.

Surface Elevation Change

The surface elevation change (SEC) is a direct expression of climate changes, and closely linked to mass balance of the ice sheet. The SEC is a key essential climate variable, and is a direct measure of the imbalance between the atmospheric forcing and ice sheet dynamics. In the Greenland CCI project, SEC is derived from present and past ESA radar altimetry missions, and validated by optical data (such as NASA’s IceSat).

The era of ESA altimetry missions was initiated with ERS-1 in 1992, and data from ERS-2, Envisat, CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 have contributed to an unbroken time series from then to present. At present, there are multiple satellites in orbit (Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3A and Sentinel-3B) contributing to the time-series; the latter are ensured to be continued, with the operational approach of the EU Sentinel programme.

The nature of the radar measurements enables surface penetration in the interior parts of the Greenland ice sheet and the radar measures a reflecting surface within the upper two meters of the snow cover, rather than the snow-air interface.

As a by-product of the work on SEC products, a Digital Elevation Model for Greenland has also been generated.

Click here to browse and download Surface Elevation Change products

Ice Velocity

Ice velocity and its spatial derivative strain rate (which is a measure of the ice deformation rate) are key variables for estimating ice discharge and mass balance, and are essential input for glacier models that try to quantify ice dynamical processes. Changes in velocity and velocity gradients can point at changing boundary conditions. Remote sensing techniques that utilise SAR and optical satellite data are the only feasible manner to derive accurate surface velocities of the remote Greenland glaciers on a regular basis.

The ice velocity (IV) products generated in the Greenland Ice Sheet CCI are derived from both optical and SAR data using combinations of different techniques. Details of the methods are provided in the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD).

Ice velocity is provided as gridded velocity fields (maps) in NetCDF format with separate files for x and y velocity components (in m/yr). The velocity represents a mean velocity value over a time period ranging from the time span of the satellite repeat-cycle (between 1 to 46 days) to a full season or year for the ice sheet wide velocity maps.

Click here to browse and download Ice Velocity products

Products by ENVEO are also available directly from http://cryoportal.enveo.at/.

Calving Front Location

The Calving Front Location (CFL) of outlet glaciers from ice sheets is a basic parameter for ice dynamic modelling, computing mass fluxes and mapping glacier area change. From the ice velocity at the calving front and a time sequence of Calving Front Locations, the iceberg production rate can be computed, which is of relevance for estimating the export of ice mass to the ocean.

The calving front location is derived by manual delineation using SAR and optical satellite data. The digitised calving front is stored as vector lines in standard GIS format. Additionally, metadata information on the sensor and processing steps are stored in the corresponding attribute table. In accordance with the URD, the vector files are provided in ESRI shape-file format.

Click here to browse and download Calving Front Location products

Products by ENVEO are also available directly from http://cryoportal.enveo.at.

Grounding Line Location

The grounding line location (GLL) marks the position of where a marine terminating glacier starts to float. Understanding the processes at the grounding line of outlet glaciers is important in order to predict the response of the ice to changing boundary conditions and to establish realistic future scenarios in response to climate change.

Remote sensing observations do not provide direct measurements of the grounding line position but can be used to detect the tidal flexure zone, using InSAR data, or spatial changes in texture and shading, using optical images, which are indicators of the transition from grounded to floating ice. Due to the plasticity of ice, these indicators usually spread out over a zone upstream and downstream of the actual grounding line, also called the grounding zone.

In the Greenland Ice Sheet CCI, the GLL is derived from InSAR data by mapping the tidal flexure zone visible in interferograms. It is generated for selected glaciers with a floating ice tongue.

Click here to browse and download Grounding Line Location products

Products by ENVEO are also available directly from http://cryoportal.enveo.at/.

Gravimetric Mass Balance

The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellites have been measuring changes in the Earth’s gravitational field since 2002. Time-variable gravity fields can be used to infer mass changes and mass redistributions in the Earth’s subsystems (e.g. the cryosphere). The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) can be measured with an accuracy of around 20 Gt/yr. The Greenland Ice Sheet CCI produces Gravimetric Mass Balance (GMB) products for the Greenland Ice Sheet from GRACE measurements. These products comprise monthly mass change time series for the entire GIS and different drainage basins as well as gridded mass change trends over different 5-year periods between.

We use the ITSG-Grace2016 release provided by TU Graz (www.tugraz.at/institute/ifg/downloads/gravity-field-models/itsg-grace2016), which includes spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 90.

Different processing algorithms exist in order to derive the required information from the available data for the GIS. The round robin (RR) exercise carried out by TU Dresden has confirmed that the mass inversion and spherical harmonic filtering methods give comparable results. Therefore, the GIS GMB setup is primarily based on the inversion method applied by DTU Space, where a direct estimate of mass changes is done in a direct least-squares generalised inverse processing. In addition, a second GMB product based on the regional integration approach using tailored sensitivity kernels is provided by TU Dresden.

Click here to browse and download Gravimetric Mass Balance products

Products by TU Dresden are also available directly from https://data1.geo.tu-dresden.de/gis_gmb.

Mass Flow rate Ice Discharge

The mass flow rate and ice discharge (MFID) product generated in the Greenland Ice Sheet CCI are derived from the CCI ice velocity (IV) product, the CCI surface elevation change (SEC) product (where it overlaps with the gates), and ice thickness from BedMachine (v3). Ice discharge gates are placed 10km upstream from all marine terminating glacier termini that have baseline velocities of more than 150 m/yr. Results are summed by Zwally et al. (2012) sectors. Full details of the methods are provided in the Algorithm Theorotical Basis Document (ATBD) or in Mankoff et al. (2019).

The following figure shows the sectors and gate locations within each sector.

Mass-Flow-Ice-Discharge.jpg

MFID is provided as a time series CSV file where each column represents one sector from with units in Gt/yr. Additional files provide error estimates and coverage (a measure of gap-filling).

Mass Flow Ice Discharge_2015-19.png

Click here to browse and download Mass-Flow rate Ice Discharge products.

The product is generated by GEUS.

Supraglacial Lakes

Supraglacial Lakes (SGL) are meltwater lakes that form in depressions at the surface of the ice sheet in the ablation zone. Supraglacial lakes are indicators of surface melt, and are a major component of routing and storage of meltwater at the ice sheet surface. These play an important role in the delivery of meltwater to the base of the ice sheet. The delivery of water to the base of glaciers and ice sheets has been observed to influence basal sliding on a range of spatio-temporal scales, as well as play a pivotal role in the seasonal evolution of the subglacial drainage system.

The SGLs are derived from Sentinel-2 optical data using an automated Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI). These products are produced for selected regions of interest, and version 1.1 is for the Sermeq Kujalleq (Jakobshavn Isbrae) hydrological catchment, as defined by Mankoff et al. 2020. The lake outlines are stored as standard vectorised polygons, with additional metadata stored in the attribute table. The detected lakes are filtered according to maximum recorded surface area and a mask of SGL basins from DEM sink filling is applied to remove false positives.

A more detailed description of the product, including analysis of elevation and individual lakes, is available in the product report.

Supraglacial-Lakes.jpg

Click here to browse and download SupraGlacial Lakes products.

The product is an R&D CCI+ activity and it is generated by Asiaq (Greenland).